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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 118-124

Prevalence and clinical characteristics of NAFLD in chronic liver disease patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah

1 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Hind Ibrahim Fallatah
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80205, Jeddah 21589
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_272_19

PMID: 32587493

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Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). NAFLD is also related to obesity and metabolic syndromes, which are common in Saudi Arabia. However, it is yet unclear what proportion of CLD cases is because of NAFLD in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NAFLD among patients with CLD in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included all patients with any CLD who had successfully undergone transient elastography (FibroScan) examination at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and April 2018. These CLD patients were then grouped as NAFLD and non-NAFLD patients. Serum hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, albumin and bilirubin levels; platelet count and international normalized ratio within 1 month after the FibroScan examination were assessed. For NAFLD patients, glycated hemoglobin levels and abdominal ultrasound examination results were also assessed. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test and linear regression. Results: The prevalence of NAFLD among CLD patients was 22.5% (111 of 494 CLD patients), and it was the third most common CLD after chronic hepatitis B and C. Compared with non-NAFLD patients, NAFLD patients had significantly higher mean age (53.65 ± 12.7 vs. 48.07 ± 14.6 years;P < 0.001), mean serum alanine aminotransferase level (61.84 vs. 50.23 IU/L;P < 0.001) and mean controlled attenuation parameter (297.83 vs. 238.41;P < 0.001). NAFLD patients also had a higher rate of ultrasound-detected features of cirrhosis (16.2% vs. 3.7%,P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in fibrosis severity. In addition, their mean glycated hemoglobin level (6.85) was elevated (range: 5–13). Age and platelet count were significantly correlated with presence of cirrhosis. Conclusion: NAFLD is the third most common CLD in Western Saudi Arabia, and it is associated with older age and metabolic syndromes, with one-third of the patients having advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis.

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