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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-11

Antibiotic-resistance genes in E. coli strains in GCC countries: A meta-analysis

1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
2 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University; Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

Correspondence Address:
Khalid Mubarak Bindayna
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama
Kingdom of Bahrain
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_638_21

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli is an alarming issue worldwide, including in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, yet the prevailing gene patterns have not recently been reviewed. This study was conducted to determine and report on the dominant E. coli antimicrobial resistant gene patterns in GCC countries. Method: A scoping review identified the predominant AMR genes in GCC countries: CTX M, TEM, SHV, NDM, OXA, and VIM genes. For the systematic review, two authors independently searched Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science for interventional, clinical, or observational studies on the chosen AMR-conferring genes in E. coli published from GCC countries between January 2013 and June 2019, when the last search was carried out. The sAearch strategy followed the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed using a 6-item standardized checklist. Random-effects modeling was used for all analyses. Results: A total 32 studies were included in the final synthesis of evidence. Overall, CTX-M (53.8%) was the most prevalent gene in the region followed TEM (40.6%), NDM-1 (28.4%), OXA (24.3%), VIM (8.5%), and SHV (7.8%). Most included studies were from Saudi Arabia: CTX-M was again most common with a prevalence of 46.8% from 5442 isolates. Conclusion: The risk of bias analysis showed a mean quality score of 4.25 ± 0.75, indicating high-quality in studies included in this meta-analysis. This review found that CTX-M gene is the most common AMR-conferring gene in E. coli strains from most GCC countries.

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