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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 139-145

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among hypertensive patients in Saudi Arabia: Study from a tertiary center


Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Aishah Ibrahim Albakr
Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahaman Bin Faisal University, 2835, King Faisal Road, Dammam 34212
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_73_22

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Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common cause of stroke, yet there is paucity of evidence regarding the same from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of spontaneous ICH as well as determine the role of gender in ICH and the usefulness of the ICH scoring system for assessing the 30-day mortality risk. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with spontaneous ICH at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between April 01, 2014, and April 30, 2019. Data regarding clinical characteristics, risk factors, and radiological features of ICH were extracted. Further, gender-related differences were determined. The 30-day mortality rates were assessed using the ICH score. Results: A total of 148 patients were diagnosed with spontaneous ICH during the study period. Of these, 100 (67.5%) were male and the overall mean age was 60 ± 15 years. About 48% of the male patients were aged ≤50 years compared to 27% of the female patients (P = 0.016). Impaired renal function (35.8%) and diabetes (33.7%) were the most frequent risk factors; hemiparesis (51%) and language impairment (42%) were the most common presenting symptoms; and basal ganglia (40.5%) was the most common location. The 30-day mortality rate was 30%. The mean ICH score at presentation was significantly high in those who died within 30 days of presentation (2.2 ± 1.6; P < 0.0001). Each increase in the ICH score was associated with an increase in mortality rate (P < 0.001 for trend). Conclusion: Patients with spontaneous ICH were found to have a high prevalence of vascular risk factors and mortality rate. The ICH scoring system was shown to be a useful clinical tool for evaluating the 30-day mortality risk.


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