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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 259-265

Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in saudi end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis


1 College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; Department of Medicine, Ministry of the National Guard - Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; Department of Medicine, Ministry of the National Guard - Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Moeber M Mahzari
Department of Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_639_21

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Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density, thereby increasing the risk of pathological fractures. It is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. However, there is limited local data on the prevalence of osteoporosis in end-stage renal disease. Objective: The current study evaluated the epidemiology of osteoporosis in end-stage rental disease patients at a Saudi Arabian tertiary care center. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted using data obtained between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2019 at the Dialysis Center at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. End-stage rental disease patients who were aged ≥50 years and underwent hemodialysis for at least 1 year were included, while those with documented metabolic bone disease and absence of bone mineral density data were excluded. Results: Sixty-four end-stage rental disease patients undergoing hemodialysis met the inclusion criteria. The patients underwent bone mineral density measurement at the discretion of the treating physician. The mean patients' age was 73 ± 11.5 years and 76% were women. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.5%, and it was similarly distributed among women and men (38.8% and 33.3%, respectively). Nine of the 15 male patients (60%) and 24 of the 49 female patients (49%) had fractures. Twenty-five (39%) patients used glucocorticoids. Osteoporosis was most commonly identified in the femoral neck (26.2%), followed by proximal femur (19.4%), and lumbar spine (18.8%). A high rate of osteoporosis was significantly associated with older age and being underweight. Conclusion: A high rate of low bone mineral density was demonstrated in end-stage renal disease patients. The femoral neck was the most common osteoporosis site in this patient population, and advanced age and underweight were possible risk factors for low bone mass.


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