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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 205-285

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Effects of apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran and enoxaparin on histopathology and laboratory parameters in Achilles tendon injury: An in vivo study p. 205
Sema Avci, Huseyin Gungor, Alper Serhat Kumru, Mahmut Sahin, Arzu Gezer, Uzeyir Gok, Haki Kara, Mucahit Avcil
Objectives: To compare the effects of apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran and enoxaparin on histopathology and blood parameters in rats with Achilles tendon injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult, male Wistar albino rats weighting 220–240 g were randomly divided into five (one control and four treatment) groups and placed in a controlled environment. The Achilles tendon was incised and re-sutured in each rat, after which each group was provided the following treatment for 28 days: a) 2 ml saline to the control group, b) apixaban in 1 ml of saline (10 mg/kg/day) +1 ml of saline, c) rivaroxaban in 1 ml of saline (2 mg/kg/day) +1 ml saline, d) dabigatran in 1 ml of saline (30 mg/kg/day) +1 ml of saline, e) enoxaparin (80 μg/kg/day) + 2 ml of saline. Results: Hemogram, biochemical and coagulation parameters differed significantly between the control and treatment groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, in the apixaban group, type I and type III collagen immunoreactivity were severe and moderate, respectively. In the rivaroxaban and dabigatran groups, both type I and type III collagen immunoreactivity were medium and severe, respectively. In the enoxaparin group, type I and type III collagen immunoreactivity were mild and severe, respectively. Conclusion: The higher concentration of type I collagen in the apixaban and dabigatran indicates faster tendon healing in these groups, and the higher concentration of the type III collagen in the enoxaparin group indicates slower healing in this group.
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High-Flow nasal cannula treatment in patients with COVID-19 acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: A prospective cohort study p. 215
Mohammed S Alshahrani, Hassan M Alshaqaq, Jehan Alhumaid, Ammar A Binammar, Khalid H AlSalem, Abdulazez Alghamdi, Ahmed Abdulhady, Moamen Yehia, Amal AlSulaibikh, Mohammed Al Jumaan, Waleed H Albuli, Talal Ibrahim, Abdullah A Yousef, Yousef Almubarak, Waleed Alhazzani
Background: Early use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) decreases the need for endotracheal intubation (EI) in different respiratory failure causes. While HFNC is used in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) under weak recommendations, its efficacy remains to be investigated. Objectives: The primary objective was to examine HFNC efficacy in preventing EI among COVID-19 patients with AHRF. Secondary objectives were to determine predictors of HFNC success/failure, mortality rate, and length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted at a single tertiary care centre in Saudi Arabia from April to August 2020. Adult patients admitted to the ICU with AHRF secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia and managed with HFNC were included. We excluded patients who were intubated or managed with non-invasive ventilation before HFNC. Results: Forty-four patients received HFNC for a median duration of 3 days (interquartile range, 1–5 days). The mean age was 57 ± 14 years, and 86% were men. HFNC failure and EI occurred in 29 (66%) patients. Patients in whom HNFC treatment failed had a higher risk of death (52% versus 0%; P = 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, a high SOFA score and a low ROX index were significantly associated with HFNC failure (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.93; P = 0.025; and HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.88; P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusions: One-third of hypoxemic COVID-19 patients who received HFNC did not require intubation. High SOFA score and low ROX index were associated with HFNC failure.
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Clinical practice and barriers of ventilatory support management in COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A survey of respiratory therapists p. 223
Jaber S Alqahtani, Yousef S Aldabayan, Mohammed D AlAhmari, Saad M AlRabeeah, Abdulelah M Aldhahir, Saeed M Alghamdi, Tope Oyelade, Malik Althobiani, Ahmed M Alrajeh
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical practice and barriers of ventilatory support management in COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia among respiratory therapists. Methods: A validated questionnaire comprising three parts was distributed to all critical care respiratory therapists registered with the Saudi Society for Respiratory Care through the official social networks. Results: A total of 74 respiratory therapists completed the survey. The mean (±standard deviation) of intensive care unit beds was 67 ± 79. Clinical presentation (54%) and arterial blood gas (38%) were the two main diagnostic tools used to initiate ventilatory support. While protocols for the initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV; 81%) were widely available, participants had limited availability of protocols for the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV; 34%) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC; 34%). In mild cases of COVID-19, most respondents used HFNC (57%), while IMV was mostly used in moderate (43%) and severe (93%) cases. Regular ventilator check was mostly done every 4 h (57%). BiPAP (47.3%) and full-face masks (45.9%) were the most used mode and interface, respectively, while pressure-regulated volume control (55.4%) and pressure control (27%) were the most used mechanical ventilation modes for COVID-19 patients. In terms of use of proning, 62% used it on IMV, while 26% reported using awake proning. Staff shortage (51.4%), personal protective equipment (PPE) shortage (51.4%), increased workload (45.9%), inadequate training (43.2%) and lack of available protocols and policies (37.8%) were the main barriers. Conclusion: Ventilatory support management of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia was inconsistent with the global practice, lacked uniformity, and there was limited use of standard protocols/treatment guidelines. Shortage of staff and PPE, increased workload and insufficient training were the most prevalent barriers.
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Determinants of telerehabilitation acceptance among patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation programs in the United States p. 230
Abdullah A Almojaibel, Niki Munk, Lynda T Goodfellow, Thomas F Fisher, Kristine K Miller, Amber R Comer, Tamilyn Bakas, Michael D Justiss
Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an interdisciplinary intervention designed to improve the physical status and the psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory diseases. To improve patients' participation in PR programs, telerehabilitation has been introduced. Objective: This study aimed to identify factors that could influence the intention to use telerehabilitation among patients attending traditional PR programs. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited subjects attending the PR centers in the hospitals of the Indiana State University, United States of America, between January and May 2017. Data were collected using self-administered Tele-Pulmonary Rehabilitation Acceptance Scale (TPRAS). TPRAS had two subscales: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Behavioral intention (BI) was the dependent variable, and all responses were dichotomized into positive and negative intention to use. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the influence of variables on the intention to use telerehabilitation. Results: A total of 134 respondents were included in this study, of which 61.2% indicated positive intention to use telerehabilitation. Perceived usefulness was a significant predictor of the positive intentions to use of telerehabilitation. Duration of respiratory disease was negatively associated with the use of telerehabilitation. Conclusion: Perceived usefulness was a significant predictor of using telerehabilitation. The findings of this study may be useful for health-care organizations in improving the adoption of telerehabilitation or in its implementation. Future telerehabilitation acceptance studies could explore the effects of additional factors including computer literacy and culture on the intention to use telerehabilitation.
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Clinical profile and outcome of group B streptococcal colonization in mothers and neonates in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates: A prospective observational study p. 235
Shatha Taher Salman AlZuheiri, Rajani Dube, Godfred Menezes, Samar Qasem
Background: Maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS)/Streptococcus agalactiae colonization rates vary worldwide; however, no such recent data are available from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic of a hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, along with the antibiotic sensitivity pattern, the clinical profile and pregnancy (maternal and fetal) outcome. Methods: This prospective observational study routinely offered rectovaginal swab for GBS to all women attending the antenatal clinic at 35–37 weeks of pregnancy between January and December 2019. MASTASTREP kit and Vitek-2 identification system was used for culture and identification. Women with positive cultures were followed up for any maternal and neonatal complications and the use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Results: A total of 2295 women were included, of which 158 (6.9%) had positive cultures for GBS colonization. The carriage rate was higher in women without any risk factors for early-onset GBS disease (EOGBS) (P < 0.01). The GBS isolates were about 97% susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin, 90% to benzyl penicillin and 95% to ampicillin. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were about 77%, 57%, 57%, and 10%, respectively. Urinary tract infection in GBS colonized women were more common in those aged ≤30 years (P = 0.009). Fetal outcome was favorable in women receiving IAP for GBS colonization. No neonate had culture proven EOGBS. Conclusion: The prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women as well as the overall maternal and neonatal complications is low in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. IAP is effective in preventing early-onset sepsis in newborn, and thus should be initiated in those with GBS colonization. The cultured GBS showed sensitivity to most antibiotics.
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Microleakage and bacterial adhesion with three restorative materials used to seal screw-access channels of implant abutments: An in vitro study p. 241
Firas Khalid AlQarawi, Baneen Mansour AlShammasi, Zainab Ahmed AlBasry, Heba Zaki AlAwami, Doaa Mostafa AlEraky, Reem Yussuf AlJindan, Hamad Saleh Alrumaih, Faris Abdullah Alshahrani
Background: Proper sealing of screw-access channels against microbial microleakage is advisable for the long-term success of screw-retained implant prosthesis. Objective: This study aimed to compare the bacterial adhesion and microleakage with three restorative materials, namely, composite resin, acrylic resin and bis-acryl, that are used to cover the access channels of screw-retained implant prostheses, using polytetrafluoroethylene tape as a spacer material. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 18 titanium straight abutments (Hex-lock® Zimmer) were torqued into implant analogs, which were then subdivided into three groups. The samples of each group were filled with polytetrafluoroethylene tape and sealed with the three restorative materials (Group A: composite resin; Group B: acrylic resin; Group C: bis-acryl). Measurements of surface bacterial adhesion and internal microleakage were then recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results: No significant difference was found between the investigated materials in terms of their sealing effectiveness against microbial microleakage (P = 0.06). Regarding bacterial adhesion, composite resin showed the highest number of surface adhesion, but there was no significant difference between the three materials (P = 0.081). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that composite resin, acrylic resin and bis-acryl materials could be used alternatively in sealing the implant access channel owing to no significant differences in terms of microleakage and bacterial adhesion.
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Knowledge and practice of pediatric providers regarding neonatal cholestasis in the western region of Saudi Arabia p. 248
Mohammed Hasosah
Background: Early detection of neonatal cholestasis (NC) is important for better clinical outcomes but can be challenging. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice styles of pediatric providers (PPs) regarding NC in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire study was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020 in three major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia (namely, Taif, Makkah and Jeddah). PPs included pediatric residents, pediatric specialists, pediatric consultants and family physicians. The questionnaire included 15 items in five subscales (definition, causes, diagnosis and management of NC and knowledge of guidelines). Results: A total of 488 participants completed the questionnaire. Only 30.2% were aware of the correct definition of NC (P < 0.001). Two-thirds of the respondents did not consider a history of pale stool being important for evaluating NC. The importance of biliary atresia as a serious cause of NC was found to be significantly different between pediatric consultants and other pediatricians (P < 0.001). In cases of prolonged NC, 32.4% of the PPs refer to pediatric gastroenterologist. Only 18.9% of the respondents were aware of liver biopsy being the gold standard investigation of NC. The majority of the respondents (41.8%) used ursodeoxycholic acid as a supportive therapy of NC. Conclusions: This study found a significant deficit in the knowledge and practice styles of PPs in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These findings highlight the need for policymakers to develop educational materials for PPs to increase their knowledge of NC.
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Antibiotic resistance pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii strains: A retrospective study from Oman p. 254
Mohan B Sannathimmappa, Vinod Nambiar, Rajeev Aravindakshan
Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is of serious health concern and associated with high mortality. Data regarding the antibiotic resistance pattern of A. baumannii strains in Oman is limited. Objectives: To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of A. baumannii from various clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in the North-Batinah region of Oman. Methods: A. baumannii isolates recovered from various clinical samples in the Microbiology laboratory of Sohar Hospital, Oman, during 2015–2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Organism identification and their antibiotic resistance patterns were performed as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: A total of 1890 A. baumannii nonduplicate isolates were found from clinical samples of 1326 patients. The isolates were more frequently isolated from elderly patients (40%) and in-patient department patients (67%). Infection/colonization was more common among patients treated in the medicine, intensive-care unit, and surgery departments. A. baumannii strains were highly resistant (50-83%) to most of the tested antibiotics, with the highest against ceftriaxone (83%) and ceftazidime (75%), and lowest against colistin (1%) and tigecycline (8%). Among the isolates, 67% (1265) were MDR strains. Of these, 22%, 32% and 16% were resistant to all six, five and four classes of the tested antibiotics. Conclusion: The study found that the frequency of isolation of MDR A. baumannii isolates in the northern region of Oman is high.
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Management and outcome of post-infectious multiloculated hydrocephalus: A case series p. 261
Abdulrazaq A Alojan, Assayl R Alotaibi, Hussain N Alalhareth, Ali D Alwadei, Ahmed Ammar
Background and importance: Infection following ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement is a recognized complication, with variable incidence rates worldwide. Development of post-infectious multiloculated hydrocephalus (MLH) is likely if VPS infection is improperly managed, in turn affecting the prognosis. There is a lack of studies from Saudi Arabia regarding patients' functional outcome in relation to different variables. Objectives: To study the causative organisms, related variables and patient outcomes in MLH after VPS infection. Methods: This case series is a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus from 2011 to 2019. Patients were included if they were aged <18 years, had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid/blood infection with radiological evidence of MLH, and were regularly followed-up. Functional status score was used to evaluate the outcomes. Results: A total of 150 patients underwent VPS insertion during the study period, of which 12 (8%) had postinfection MLH. The mean age at diagnosis and follow-up was 9 and 19 months, respectively. Ten patients developed MLH after their first VPS infection and one each developed MLH following the second and third VPS infections. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures mostly grew only single organisms (6/12), with Staphylococcus species being the most common. All patients underwent navigated endoscopic fenestration; nine patients required VPS placement and three required redo endoscopic fenestration surgery. All patients were developmentally delayed, with the majority (75%) having a functional status score of 6–10. Conclusion: Development of MLH after VPS infection is debilitating and requires prompt treatment. Although the overall functional outcome is poor, evolving neuroendoscopic techniques with tailored preoperative planning may play a role in reducing the adverse effect of shunt multiplicity, shunt infections and the higher failure rate among patients with complex hydrocephalus.
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Unusual presentation of lipofibromatosis-like neural tumor in an adult: A case report p. 267
Muhammad Samsoor Zarak, Taylor Sliker, Tiffany Javadi, Asad Ullah, Saleh G Heneidi, Paul Biddinger, Natasha M Savage, Kelly Homlar, Joe Clarence, Joseph White
Lipofibromatosis-like neural tumor (LPF-NT) is a rare variant of lipofibromatosis. Standard lipofibromatosis tumors show a predilection for the distal extremities of male children or young adults and are typically painless, slow-growing, subcutaneous or deep soft tissue masses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with a slowly expanding, right foot mass. Physical examination revealed a painful, non-tender firm mass on the right medial foot. Magnetic imaging studies revealed a poorly defined soft tissue mass extending through subcutaneous tissue up to the dermis. Histologic examination revealed a spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of S100 protein, CD34 and TRK. In addition, the lesion was found to be positive for the LMNA-NTRK1 fusion by next-generation sequencing. These findings were supportive of a diagnosis of LPF-NT. At 3-month post-excision, the patient had no pain and repeat imaging indicated no evidence of tumor. The authors recommended including LPF-NT in the differential diagnosis of masses or lesions that are fibro-fatty tumors.
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Transient myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-positive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following influenza A infection: A rare case p. 271
Prashant Nasa, Mohamed Mortada, Aanchal Singh, Vickrant Malhotra, Habib Syed
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon disease generally with a preceding history of infectious illness. Here, we report a rare case of ADEM following influenza A infection with transient detection of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody in a young male patient who presented with extensive demyelination of brain and spinal cord, likely the result of dysregulated immune response from previous influenza A infection. The patient presented to the emergency with urinary retention and progressive ascending weakness of lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord showed multiple ill-defined hyperintensities, suggestive of demyelination. The clinical presentation, MRI findings, cerebrospinal fluid examination, negative anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and metabolic and other viral infectious screening supported the diagnosis of ADEM. The patient had transiently positive anti-MOG antibodies (for 3 months) and was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin followed by oral prednisolone for 3 months. There was a significant recovery in the upper limb weakness and brainstem function. This case highlights the association of anti-MOG antibody with ADEM following viral infections and the need for prolonged follow-up to differentiate between transient antibodies from relapsing MOG antibody disease.
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COVID-19-Associated severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A rare case report p. 276
Lakshmi J Nair, Aravind Regukumar, KT Baalamurugan
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a very rare presentation of COVID-19, and AIHA due to COVID-19 alone (i.e., in the absence of an associated underlying disorder) is extremely rare. Warm agglutinin disease accounts for the majority of AIHA in general. Here, we report a case of a 23-year-old male with bronchial asthma who was referred to our hospital with SARS-COV-2 infection and severe anemia presenting as acute immune-mediated hemolytic crisis due to warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Extensive laboratory testing was performed, including polyspecific direct antiglobulin test, complete autoimmune workup and common infections leading to AIHA were ruled out by serology and molecular methods. The patient required multiple blood transfusions and other therapeutic interventions before clinical stabilization. Treatment of new-onset AIHA is always challenging in the presence of an active viral replication; combining immunosuppression with active COVID-19 infection creates extremely difficult diagnostic and management settings, as this case illustrates.
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Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in a middle-aged female p. 280
Piyush Manoria, Hanni V Gulwani
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Arabic Abstract p. 282

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