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   2019| September-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 28, 2019

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Clinical aspects, diagnosis and management of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: A literature review
Abdulla Al-Sulaiman
September-December 2019, 7(3):137-145
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_22_19  PMID:31543733
Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of stroke, but its delayed diagnosis carries significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies have reported higher incidence of CVST than that previously reported. The clinical presentation of CVST varies and can be atypical. Advancement in neuroimaging modalities has made it possible to make an early diagnosis and initiate management with a wide range of therapeutic options, including direct oral anticoagulants and endovascular treatment. This narrative review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis and management of CVST.
  4,717 725 10
Prevalence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest in a university hospital in the Western Region, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Hussain Alzahrani, Maumounah F Alnajjar, Hussien M Alshamarni, Hasan M Alshamrani, Abdullah A Bakhsh
September-December 2019, 7(3):156-162
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_256_18  PMID:31543736
Background: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a major cause of mortality, yet its epidemiological and outcome data in hospitals from Saudi Arabia are limited. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of SCA in a teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients aged ≥18 years with SCA who were resuscitated at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 1 and December 31, 2016. Data were retrieved from the hospital medical records as flow sheets designed in accordance with the Utstein-style recommendations. Factors relating to mortality were analyzed using descriptive analyses and chi-square test. Results: A total of 429 cases of SCA met the inclusion criteria, and its prevalence was 7.76 cases/1000 adult hospital admission. Of these, 61.3% were male, and the mean age was 58.4 years, with 36.6% aged >65 years. Only 3.5% were outside-hospital cardiac arrests. The most common initial rhythm was pulseless electrical activity/asystole (93.2%), while ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation was documented in only 29 cases (6.8%). The overall rate of return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 56.2%, and 56.8% in cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). Patients with SCA due to sepsis had significantly increased mortality (P < 0.000; odds ratio [OR] = 0.24 [0.12–0.47 95% confidence interval [CI]), while those with SCA due to respiratory causes had significantly better survival outcomes (P = 0.001; OR = 2.3 [1.5–3.8 95% CI]). No significant differences in outcomes were found between other risk factors, including cardiac causes. Conclusion: In this population, the prevalence of SCA in adults was higher than reported in many similar studies. Further, sepsis was found to affect the survival rate. Although the rate of ROSC for IHCA patients was favorable compared with other studies, it is relatively poor. This finding signifies the need to identify and control risk factors for SCA to improve survival.
  3,444 487 2
Effect of sterilization on cyclic fatigue resistance of Proflexendo endodontic rotary files
Emad O Alshwaimi
September-December 2019, 7(3):151-155
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_123_17  PMID:31543735
Background: Proflexendo file (Nexen, Houston, TX, USA) is a recently developed, novel nickel-titanium rotary file. However, several physical properties of the Proflexendo system remain to be investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sterilization on cyclic resistance of Proflexendo files. Material and Methods: A total of 120 unused Proflexendo rotary files (40 each of file sizes 40/0.04, 30/0.04 and 20/0.06) were used in this study. Each set of files was subdivided into four groups of ten files. Group 1 did not undergo any sterilization (control), Group 2 underwent two rounds (2×) of sterilization, Group 3 five rounds (5×) and Group 4 ten rounds (10×). Cyclic fatigue resistance was tested using an artificial canal with a 5-mm radius curve. Results: The nonsterilized size 30/0.04 files had the highest cycles to failure, followed by the nonsterilized size 40/0.04 and 20/0.06 files (P < 0.001). With increasing rounds of sterilization, cycles to failure reduced for sizes 40 (2×, 5× and 10×) and 30 (2×) files compared with nonsterilized sizes 40 (P < 0.05) and 30 files (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Under the conditions of the current study, the results provide preliminary evidence that autoclave sterilization of Proflexendo rotary files reduced their cyclic fatigue resistance, except for size 20 (2× and 5×) and 30 (10×) files, in which resistance increased. Single use of this file is recommended to reduce the risk of separation.
  2,965 383 1
Sociodemographic characteristics of adult Saudi patients with mood disorder subtypes
Mahdi Saeed Abumadini
September-December 2019, 7(3):169-174
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_60_18  PMID:31543738
Background: The demographic profile and clinical manifestations of mood disorder subtypes can differ across regions; however, there is a lack of studies from Saudi Arabia on the sociodemographic characteristics of adult Saudi patients with mood disorder subtypes. Objective: The study aims to explore the sociodemographic profile of adult Saudi patients with different types of mood disorders. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the data of all adult Saudi patients (aged ≥18 years) who were diagnosed with a mood disorder and attended the psychiatric outpatient clinic at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 2011. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity were not included in the analyses. Major depressive disorder (depression), bipolar disorder, adjustment disorder and dysthymia were the four subtypes of mood disorder identified in the sample, and all eligible patients were categorized accordingly. Results: A total of 340 patients were included in this study. Slightly less than half (42.4%) the study population were aged 18–30 years. Further, 58% of the patients were females, 67.6% were married and 58.8% were unemployed. Depression was the most common mood disorder (~73%). Of the patients with bipolar disorder (n = 38), more than half were male and aged 18–30 years (~58% each); these percentages were higher than that observed in other subtypes. Conclusion: This study found that among patients at KFHU, depression is the most common mood disorder and that most patients are females. In contrast, bipolar disorder is more common among males. Further in-depth studies in a larger sample size may provide better patient profiling, which can be used for developing effective screening programs.
  2,994 250 1
Demographic and clinicopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at the National Cancer Institute, Sudan
Husam S Khougali, Ahmed A Albashir, Hatoun N Daffaalla, Mohammed Salih
September-December 2019, 7(3):146-150
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_138_18  PMID:31543734
Background: Colorectal cancer is a common type of cancer worldwide, including in Sudan. However, few studies have assessed its demographic, clinical and pathological patterns in the Sudanese population. Objective: To assess the demographic, clinical and pathological patterns in patients with colorectal cancer at National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, Sudan. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzed the data of all colorectal cancer patients who presented to National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, between January 2016 and December 2017. National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, is one of the two National Cancer Institutes in Sudan and receives patients from across Sudan. The demographic, clinical and pathological information were extracted from the patients' files. Results: A total of 163 colorectal cancer patients who presented to National Cancer Institute during the study period and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Most patients were aged >40–69 years (58.8%), were male (53.4%) and from Central Sudan (65.6%). About 44% of the patients were diagnosed 6–12 months from the disease onset and 26.8% after >12 months. Change in bowel habits (51.5%), rectal bleeding (42.3%) and abdominal pain (32.5%) were the most common clinical presentations. About 58% of the patients did not undergo per rectal examination during their initial presentation. Rectum was the most common site of tumor (58.9%), and the majority of patients had Grade I adenocarcinoma (50.3%). Duke's Class B (38%) and Class C (31%) were the most common stages of the patients' tumor, and signet ring carcinoma was found in 4.9% of the patients. Conclusion: This study found that in Sudan, colorectal cancer patients most commonly present late after the onset of symptoms, with an advanced stage and aggressive pattern as well as the proportion of younger patients is high. Further, per rectal examination is often not performed during the initial presentation.
  2,381 481 1
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
Hosam M Al-Jehani
September-December 2019, 7(3):135-136
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_281_19  PMID:31543732
  2,138 481 -
Unusual presentation of aspergillus pericarditis: A case report
Feras Ahmed Alkuwaiti, Yasser Elghoneimy, Eman Ahmed Alabdrabalrasol, Saleh Tawfeeq Alshreadah
September-December 2019, 7(3):175-178
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_129_17  PMID:31543739
Cardiac aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection that affects the heart and/or pericardium of immunocompromised patients. Here, the authors report a rare case of a 36-year-old female with aspergillus pericarditis. The patient was diagnosed with infective endocarditis and splenic infarction and treated with emergency splenectomy and double-valve replacement surgery. During the surgery, a fibropurulent pericardial tissue was found and excised. The culture report of the tissue confirmed the diagnosis of aspergillus pericarditis. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous voriconazole. Aspergillus do not usually infect the pericardium and such infections are rarely detected premortem, especially during a cardiac surgery. In this report, the infection was accidentally detected during the double-valve surgery. The authors conclude that because of its nonspecific clinical manifestations, a high degree of clinical suspicion is required for the early diagnosis and treatment of aspergillus pericarditis.
  2,169 254 -
Glued intraocular lens combined with endothelial keratoplasty: A case report
Arwa Z Al-Romaih, Mohanna Y Al-Jindan, Saud M Al-Johani
September-December 2019, 7(3):179-182
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_19_18  PMID:31543740
In an aphakic eye with corneal edema, performing Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) combined with implantation of intraocular lens can be a challenge. This case report describes a surgical technique for postsurgical aphakia with endothelial decompensation in a 42-year-old female with Marfan syndrome and subluxated lens. This technique comprised implanting DSAEK with fibrin glue-assisted sutureless posterior chamber intraocular lens. The donor lenticels were formed on a 60-kHz femtosecond laser platform (IntraLase®). Two partial-thickness scleral flaps and sclerotomies were created, and then, the Descemet's membrane was scored and stripped. A posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted, and its haptics was pulled out through the sclerotomies and tucked beneath the flaps. The flaps were then apposed with fibrin glue. The donor lenticule was introduced to the anterior chamber and unfolded. Air tamponade was used to stabilize and center it. This technique significantly improved the uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuities of the patient, and no donor dislocations were reported. This case corroborates the findings of few similar cases that have found combined use of glued intraocular lens with DSAEK to be beneficial in such cases.
  2,106 278 1
Hodgkin's lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil, Ayman Alhejazi, Ibraheem Motabi, Ahmed Sagheir, Musa Alzahrani, Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour
September-December 2019, 7(3):195-201
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_96_19  PMID:31543744
  2,091 226 1
Medical students' perceptions of their educational environment at a Saudi university
Sahar Hassan Al-Natour
September-December 2019, 7(3):163-168
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_141_17  PMID:31543737
Background: Students' perception of their educational environment has a significant impact on their behavior and academic progress. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding their educational environment at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory to collect data from 5th-year medical students at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University during the academic year 2010–2011 (score range: 0–200). The mean scores for each individual item and for the following five contributing DREEM domains were calculated: Perception of learning, perception of teaching, academic self-perception, perception of atmosphere and social self-perception. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 121 students, all of whom completed the questionnaire. Of these, 65.3% were male and 34.7% were female. The mean total score was 126.4 (63%), indicating that the educational environment is satisfactory. The two lowest scoring contributory domains were academic self-perception (17.4/28; 60%) and perception of learning (29.3/48; 61%). No areas of excellence were identified (i.e., mean scores of >3.5); however, four main problematic areas were identified (mean scores of ≤2.0): Overemphasis of factual learning (1.66), difficulty with authoritarianism of teachers (1.55), students unable to memorize everything (1.82) and boredom in course (1.81). Conclusion: This study found that the overall educational environment at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University is satisfactory, with further scope of improvement. The author recommends implementation of remedial measures such as modifications in curriculum and using innovative teaching strategies to overcome problematic areas and further improve the overall educational environment.
  1,922 343 2
Liver metastasis in a young female secondary to breast cancer: A case report
Shaya Yaanallah Al Qahtani, Reem Jaafar Al Argan
September-December 2019, 7(3):190-194
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_49_17  PMID:31543743
Breast cancer is common among females worldwide and is most commonly reported in women aged 30–40 years and less commonly in those aged <30 years. Presentation with liver metastasis is rare in breast cancer at all ages. Lactic acidosis in association with metastatic breast cancer is also rare. Here, the authors report a case of a 26-year-old female who presented with cholestatic jaundice, coagulopathy and ascites. Radiological examination showed evidence of infiltrating liver lesion. Computed tomography-guided liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of breast origin based on the strong estrogen receptor positivity. Chemotherapy could not be initiated because of the patient's critical condition. Unfortunately, the condition deteriorated rapidly, and the patient died secondary to liver failure manifested with disseminated intravascular coagulation and lactic acidosis. This is a rare case of breast cancer in terms of age group (<30 years), site of metastasis at presentation and complication of metastatic breast cancer (type B lactic acidosis), and thus highlights the distinct features of such breast cancers.
  1,923 258 -
Mantle cell lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Musa Alzahrani, Ahmed Sagheir, Ibraheem Motabi, Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil, Ayman Alhejazi
September-December 2019, 7(3):226-230
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_105_19  PMID:31543750
  1,461 387 -
Large aneurysm of the left main coronary artery: A case report
Abdullah M Alshehri
September-December 2019, 7(3):187-189
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_47_18  PMID:31543742
Left main coronary artery aneurysms are very rare and are incidentally encountered in about 0.1% of patients undergoing angiography. Atherosclerosis represents the main cause of this aneurysm in adult patients. Here, the author presents a case of a 58-year-old female with a history of hypertension and diabetes who had a Canadian Cardiovascular Society Grade II–III angina for the past 6 months. Selective coronary angiography revealed a large aneurysm involving the left main coronary artery (measuring 2 cm × 3 cm) with extensive coronary calcifications, ectatic proximal left circumflex followed by 80% stenotic lesion with normal left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The patient was managed with coronary artery bypass grafting along with ligation of the aneurysm. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic. Therefore, distal coronary artery bypass surgery represents one of the therapeutic options and was safe and effective in our case.
  1,539 242 -
Marginal zone lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Magdy Kandil, Hani Alhashmi, Musa Alzahrani, Ayman Alhejazi, Ibraheem Motabi, Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Ahmed Sagheir
September-December 2019, 7(3):202-208
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_97_19  PMID:31543745
  1,542 201 -
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Mubarak Al-Mansour, Reyad Dada, Magdy Kandil, Ahmed Sagheir, Musa Alzahrani, Ayman Alhejazi, Ibraheem Motabi, Hani Alhashmi
September-December 2019, 7(3):209-213
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_98_19  PMID:31543746
  1,513 208 1
Management of failing dental implants following orofacial trauma: A case report
Hamad Saleh AlRumaih
September-December 2019, 7(3):183-186
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_26_18  PMID:31543741
Dental implant failure can be caused by several biomechanical and biological factors. Management of failed multiple adjacent dental implants can be challenging, as the amount of bone loss around these implants is often high. This necessitates the need to restore the supporting bone and replace the failed implants with new implants in optimal positions and with a favorable dental prosthetic option. This report describes a case of a 27-year-old female who presented with failed multiple adjacent maxillary dental implants following orofacial trauma and with a significant amount of supporting bone loss. The patient was managed by implants removal, bone grafting and implant-supported fixed hybrid prosthesis, which resulted in a positive outcome, despite several challenges.
  1,314 225 -
Follicular lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil, Ayman Alhejazi, Ahmed Sagheir, Musa Alzahrani, Ibraheem Motabi
September-December 2019, 7(3):214-218
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_101_19  PMID:31543747
  1,355 146 -
Natural Killer/T-Cell lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Ibraheem Motabi, Musa Alzahrani, Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil, Ahmed Sagheir, Ayman Alhejazi
September-December 2019, 7(3):222-225
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_104_19  PMID:31543749
  1,330 170 -
Recurrent ischemic strokes due to chronic otomastoiditis: A rare clinical entity
Gaurav Chauhan, Vivek Singh, RV Phadke, Sapna Yadav
September-December 2019, 7(3):234-236
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_152_18  PMID:31543752
  1,333 162 -
Primary mediastinal large B-Cell lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Ayman Alhejazi, Ibraheem Motabi, Ahmed Sagheir, Musa Alzahrani, Reyad Dada, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil
September-December 2019, 7(3):231-233
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_106_19  PMID:31543751
  1,179 158 -
Erratum: Human metapneumovirus in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia

September-December 2019, 7(3):237-237
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_327_19  PMID:31543753
  1,119 168 -
Primary central nervous system lymphoma: Saudi Lymphoma Group's clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, management and follow-up
Ahmed Sagheir, Ayman Alhejazi, Mubarak Al-Mansour, Hani Alhashmi, Magdy Kandil, Ibraheem Motabi, Musa Alzahrani, Reyad Dada
September-December 2019, 7(3):219-221
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_103_19  PMID:31543748
  825 113 -